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The Drought of the Western U.S.

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Firefly369

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There's been a few posts on this topic already in random threads.  But It's such a large topic it can have its own folder.

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Here are 2 videos on Lake Mead:

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(He announces at the end that he filmed in May.  The water is lower now)

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Firefly369

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Cavitation in trees is when trees get air (or gas) bubbles in the xylem (which is similar to their blood vessels and carries sap up and down the trees).  The cavitation can block the xylem so the tree can not get any fluid from that xylem path.

It's a common event with the changes of season, but it also happens under extreme stress- like this drought.

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This is related:


The destructive power of sound waves
2013

Researchers at the University of Arizona College of Engineering have come up with a novel way to help the U.S. Air Force dispose of stockpiles of dangerous chemicals – using nothing more than sound waves.

Manish Keswani, an assistant professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Reyes Sierra, a professor in the Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, have been awarded a $243,000 contract by the Air Force Civil Engineering Center to destroy the chemicals using a novel sonochemical process, which uses sound waves to break down complex and toxic molecules into nothing more than carbon dioxide and water.

"Sonolysis relies on the process of cavitation for its success," Keswani said. "Under certain conditions, sound waves cause the formation of small bubbles that rapidly implode and release an intense shock wave that produces enormous amounts of heat energy and a variety of highly active radicals, which can completely destroy adjacent material."

Cavitation is used in certain medical procedures and is also found in nature. Shock-wave lithotripsy relies on cavitation to destroy kidney stones, and mantis shrimps use cavitation when hunting their next meal. The shrimps strike with such velocity – about the speed of a bullet after it's fired – that they generate cavitation bubbles in the water between themselves and their target. Even if they don't make a direct strike, the resulting shock waves are enough to stun or kill their prey.

The heat energy unleashed by cavitation breaks down the bonds that tie large molecules together, such as the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, or PFCs, found in fire-fighting foams. These toxic PFCs are hard to break down and tend to persist in the environment, and in body tissue, which is why the Air Force will be investigating cavitation as a cost-effective method of producing temperatures in excess of 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit, more than enough to incinerate the problem chemicals.
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Now more on trees...

Cavitation in trees
2006

Sap is transported under tension (i.e. negative pressure) in trees, according to the tension-cohesion theory. Since water is physically instable under negative pressure, a risk of cavitation is possible. Techniques have been developed during the past two decennia to study cavitation in trees. Trees appear remarkably immune to cavitation events. Cavities form only when extreme water stresses occur or when sap freezes. Nucleation is heterogeneous in trees, presumably caused by the aspiration of air bubbles through conduit walls. Threshold xylem pressures for cavitation vary greatly between species, in concordance with the great functional and ecological diversity of trees

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Researchers measure cavitation noise in trees
2013

A team of researchers from Grenoble University in France has found that under experimental conditions, roughly half of the noise created by drying wood is due to cavitation. The team made this discovery while studying the noises trees make in drought conditions. 

(Phys.org) —A team of researchers from Grenoble University in France has found that under experimental conditions, roughly half of the noise created by drying wood is due to cavitation. The team made this discovery while studying the noises trees make in drought conditions. They presented their findings at last month's American Physical Society meeting.

Scientists have known for many years that trees make noise, and not from just the creaking that occurs as wind pushes them back and forth. Trees also emit noise that is too high in frequency for the human ear to hear. Past research suggests that the noises trees make change if they're not getting enough water, and at least some of that noise is likely due to cavitation. Cavitation occurs when air bubbles form in the tubes (xylem) that run up and down tree trunks, preventing water from being pulled upward—in some cases it causes the tree to die. What has remained a mystery, however, is how much of the noise coming from trees during times of drought stress is due to cavitation, and how much from other sources, such as cell breakage.

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Results of our meta-analysis confirm that poplars are among the most vulnerable woody species to drought-induced cavitation (mean P50 = -1.44 and -1.55 MPa across pure species and hybrids, respectively). Yet, significant variation occurs among species (P50 range: 1.43 MPa) and among hybrid crosses (P50 range: 1.12 MPa), within species and hybrid crosses (max. P50 range reported: 0.8 MPa) as well as in response to environmental factors including nitrogen fertilization, irradiance, temperature and drought (max. P50 range reported: 0.75 MPa). Potential implications and gaps in knowledge are discussed in the context of poplar cultivation, species adaptation and climate modifications. We suggest that poplars represent a valuable model for studies on drought-induced cavitation, especially to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of cavitation resistance in Angiosperms.

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TL;DR:

Cavitation can be a normal event.  Trees can self correct in a normal environment. 

Under drought conditions, trees are more prone to cavitation. (Basically tree strokes).  When the cavitation/ embolism breaks (pops), this causes some of the tree noises you hear in a drought ridden forest. The sound wave, and subsequent shock wave, release a burst of heat energy.  Multiple heat energy events like this raise the temperature of the forest.  It's a continuous cycle until fire or bugs or rain destroy or save the trees. 

Firefly369

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A FEW DAM FACTS:

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🚨 Satanic Hoover Dam thread 🚨
Get ready to be blown away guys!

I'll start here: back in 2014, author William Frederick discovered that Google Earth had overlaid a fake hole on the Hoover Dam 🤔
Way back then he suspected it to be a foreshadowing of things to come, and in fact predicted 2022 as the year it'd go down.

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Firefly369

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More Hoover Dam fun!!


I have been fascinated by this ever since I saw it floating around after the explosion at the Hoover Dam. I know you’ll ask where it’s from, but I am not sure. I went on a mission then to find more information about this alleged time projection chamber located at the Hoover Dam.

What does that even mean, time projection chamber?

Turns out, it’s a particle collider, a mini CERN.

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Was the All Spark hidden in the Hoover Dam?
~~
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More cube disclosure.
The all spark - Transformers.

Marvel comics has a "cosmic cube" too. We're stuck in the material world? You are not allowed to view links. Register or Login

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is so old he remembers when they called it a "Cosmic Cube," not a "Tesserract," and doesn't "Tesserract" sound more like the name of an exotic dancer? You are not allowed to view links. Register or Login



Terrible cover, but great story that pits Cap and the Aquarian against AIM when AIM steals the Cosmic Cube from Project Pegasus! #todayscomics

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1)They are known as the tuning fork Angels..it's been said that the dam was built and named after president HH..but the esoterically it's a tribute to JEdgar Hoover the FMason & homosexual & is a Mason*c masterpiece..Transformers (2007)identifies the cosmic cube hidden there 1935

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>>

FALLING ANGEL SYMBOLOGY AT HOOVER DAM (images)

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DigitalDiogenes

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Have you ever seen the movie Chinatown?

Firefly369

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Have you ever seen the movie Chinatown?

I have not!

I will add that to my movies to see. 😀

Looks like it is a documentary with a fiction plot thrown on top to distract you from the truth of things.

Quote
Chinatown is a 1974 American neo-noir mystery drama film directed by Roman Polanski from a screenplay by Robert Towne, starring Jack Nicholson and Faye Dunaway. The film was inspired by the California water wars, a series of disputes over southern California water at the beginning of the 20th century, by which Los Angeles interests secured water rights in the Owens Valley.[4] The Robert Evans production, released by Paramount Pictures, was the director's last film in the United States and features many elements of film noir, particularly a multi-layered story that is part mystery and part psychological drama.
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Mr. "It wasn't rape-rape" directed it.

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It's from the Hollywood era of overacting and no CGI.  Those are always so fun to watch!

DigitalDiogenes

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Have you ever seen the movie Chinatown?

I have not!

I will add that to my movies to see. 😀

Looks like it is a documentary with a fiction plot thrown on top to distract you from the truth of things.

Quote
Chinatown is a 1974 American neo-noir mystery drama film directed by Roman Polanski from a screenplay by Robert Towne, starring Jack Nicholson and Faye Dunaway. The film was inspired by the California water wars, a series of disputes over southern California water at the beginning of the 20th century, by which Los Angeles interests secured water rights in the Owens Valley.[4] The Robert Evans production, released by Paramount Pictures, was the director's last film in the United States and features many elements of film noir, particularly a multi-layered story that is part mystery and part psychological drama.
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Mr. "It wasn't rape-rape" directed it.

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It's from the Hollywood era of overacting and no CGI.  Those are always so fun to watch!

Supposedly it's Kissinger's favorite. It's a phenomenally done movie one of my favorite. Ironically just started watching Goliath on Amazon. Season 3 is all about the same thing... La water wars.

Firefly369

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Supposedly it's Kissinger's favorite. It's a phenomenally done movie one of my favorite. Ironically just started watching Goliath on Amazon. Season 3 is all about the same thing... La water wars.

I haven't watched Goliath either.   Will add that to the playlist too :)

Firefly369

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Big Farm strikes again...



FACEBOOK POST:

Boycott these products!!!! Hello.  My name is Nicole Furstenfeld. I am reaching out to try to discuss  what is happening in Cuyama Valley a small mountain community in the corners of Kern, Ventura, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara counties.  ALL landowners/ and homeowners in the townsite in the Cuyama Valley are being served and sued for their water rights. Two large corporate farm companies Grimmway and Bolthouse are suing all landowners in the Cuyama Valley. They have over- pumped water without a care for decades, one of the main reasons Cuyama Valley  has the 5th most over drafted water basin in ALL of California, and the ONLY over drafted basin in Santa Barbara County. They want to take private land owners', ranchers' and small family farmers' water rights, so they can continue their neglectful over-pumping of the basin. Please help us to spread the word to BOYCOTT Grimmway Farms/Cal Organic/ Bunny Luv and Bolthouse Farms!!
They are trying to take advantage of this small unincorperated, rural community.  We are really hoping by boycotting these farms we can help this small community!

SOME REPLIES:

They did do that and then drag out the law suit for years and years until the small farmers give up because they run out of money . And give up their water rights . They did it to the farmers in Santa Maria and it took ten years and what started with 70 farms only 3 lasted .
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Remember what the Mullholland and L.A. eater district did to Owens lake in the Sierras. Go look at the dry poisoned LAKE off  Hwy 395. LA got there water and they lost a valley. 🖕
~~
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MEDIA:

Water fight: Cuyama Valley landowners face an adjudication lawsuit as they try to sustainably manage their groundwater basin

Quote
"The local people are under two stresses: One stress of their well might run dry, and the second stress is what's paying for the plan to make sure their well doesn't run dry is a pumping fee that they've never paid before."

The large, multinational corporations Williams referred to include Bolthouse Farms and Grimmway Farms, which grow carrots on large swaths of land in the Cuyama Valley. Representatives for the growers sit on both a water district formed after the state passed its groundwater management act in 2014 and the Cuyama Valley GSA tasked with managing the area's water basin. Cuyama resident and Condor's Hope Vineyard co-owner Roberta Jaffe said that community members believe there's a conflict of interest for the corporations that filed a water rights lawsuit to also serve on the agency tasked with making water management decisions for that same water basin.

"Grimmway and Bolthouse are basically suing every landowner in the basin for water rights in a basin that has limited water and has to make drastic cuts in the next few years," Jaffe said. "They're one of the main perpetrators over why we have an overdrafted basin. They've been using most of the water."

Many of the valley's non-corporate landowners have been farming in Cuyama for generations, Jaffe said. Those community members have made changes to cope with the region's groundwater situation, including switching to less-water-intensive crops and making cutbacks to water pumping. That's the reality of the situation, she said, a reality the corporations are choosing not to face.
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Firefly369

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The US cattle industry is being destroyed.

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News stories:

Cow numbers have dropped in North America but the potential for higher prices will depend on feed costs.
Drought and high feed and forage costs have pushed Canadian and American beef cow herds down to the smallest level in many years.

That should mean rising feeder and fed cattle prices over the next few years, but profitability for the cow-calf and feedlot producers will depend on how soon feed costs fall.

It also means beef consumers won’t see price relief at the meat counter for the foreseeable future.

Drought devastated feed production on the northern Plains last year. This year, the drought has shifted south, focusing on Texas and Oklahoma, the two most important cow-calf states in the United States.[/quote]
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Beef prices set to surge further as farmers sell off cattle herds
Quote
But it's not just the reduction in cattle overall that is of concern. It's what is getting sent to slaughter. There is a notable boost in calf-producing females getting sold for processing in addition to steers, which are typically favored for consumption.

The number of females in feedlots is up 3%, and existing herds are down roughly 2.7% from a year ago. Shagam said that combination means "supplies of cattle going to feedlots is going to be declining," resulting in "progressively tighter supplies of all fed cattle available for slaughter as we move into 2023."

The increased number of cows and heifers sold for slaughter means herd depletion will continue, and building it back will take years.
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(The sell off now will affect the cattle market for the next 2-3 years.)

 

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